Wednesday, 28 July 2021



Named so after Devon city in England where rocks of that period was first discovered. The fossils of Psilopsids, Tycopsids, Sphenopsids, ferns, Liverworts, Horse tails, Pterospermales etc. were discovered from rock sediments of this period. (v) Mississipian Period : This is a period of Palaeozoic era. It is named after the city Mississipi. It lasted for 25 million years. Coal beds were discovered. The fossils of tree-like Lycopods were discovered from rock of that age.

 (vi) Pennsylvanian Period : It is a period of Palaeozoic era. This period was named after the city Pennsylvania. It lasted for 25 years. The Mississipian and Pennsylvanian periods are together called Carboniferous period. The fossils of mosses, cordaitals and Pteridospermales were predominant in the rocks of that age.

 (vii) Permian Period : It is a period of Palaeozoic era. This period lasted for 30 million years. The fossils of Ginkgoales and primitive coniferales were discovered from rock deposits of this period. 5. Mesozoic Era The mesozoic era is the period of 'middle life', It started 225 million years ago and ended 75 million years back.

 Cycads had flourished well in that era, so that it is called 'age of cycads'. The supporters of this view consider that the similarity in the sex organs and life-cycles of bryophytes and pteridophytes is due to their parallel evolution. Campbell (1895), Lignier (1903), Zimmermand (1930, 1938), and Bower (1935), on the other band nostulated that ancestors of pteridophytes were some.

Smaller vascular bundles lie in the middle of mesophyll

A leaf having stomata on both the surfaces is called amphistomatic. Each stoma possesses two dumb-bell shaped guard cells with or without subsidiary cells. Functions : (i) Epidermis provides protection to the leaf interior. (ii) Its thickened cells and cuticle reduce the rate of surface transpiration. (iii) Protection from entry of pathogens. 

(iv) Exchange of gases with the help of stomata. (vi) Folding and unfolding of leaves with help of bulliform cells in response to changes in atmospheric humidity and change availability of water.

 In Mesophyll : chymatous ground tissue of the leaves. Mesophyll of isobilateral monocot leaves is undifferentiated. All the cells are similar. They It constitutes the chloren- are, generally, oval or rounded in outlines.

The enclose small intercellular spaces. intercellular spaces with are connected substomatal cavities, Mesophyll cells contain abundant chloroplasts; therefore, they are the seat of photosynthesis. 3) Vascular Strand : It consists of a number of parallel vascular bundles. Smaller vascular bundles lie in the middle of mesophyll. The Targer vascular bundles and their extensions occupy the whole area between the two leaf surfaces.

 Bundle sheath extensions are sclerenchymatous. Each vascular bundle is covered by a sheath of parenchyma cells having chloroplasts. A single bundle sheath occurs in panicoid grasses while double sheath occurs in festucoid grasses. It has phloem towards abaxial side and xylem towards adaxial side.The Phloem does not show distinction.

   The various components of a monocot leaf are epidermis

It is surrounded by parenchymatous ground tissue. Vascular bundles have conjoint, collateral but closed nature with xylem towards the upper side and phloem towards the lower side. Reasons for Identification : (i) Bifacial flattened structure with stomata nmostly on lower surface. (iii) Vascular bundles with colourless bundle sheath. 

Internall Structure of an Isobilateral Monocot Leaf : (Fig. 6) In monocot leaves the two surfaces are equally green and liable to face the sun. They are, therefore, called isobilateral leaves (Gk. isos equal, bis side).

 The various components of a monocot leaf are epidermis, mesophyll, vascular twice, latris strand and midrib. (1) Epidermis : It is the outer most covering of the lamina on both the surfaces. The cells are parenchymatous rectangular barrel shaped. They are devoid of chloroplasts and are, therefore, transparent.

 Free surface of the epidermal cells possesses cutin and silica thickenings. Separate layer of cuticle is also present. At places the adaxial epidermis of Maize and a number of grasses possess large sized thil.walled colourless protruding cells called bulliform or motor cells. They become flaccid when water is deficient. Consequently, the leaves curl inwardly to minimise exposed surface.

 The leaves become flát again when water is available and bulliform cells become turgid. Bulliform or motor cells, therefore, take part in folding and unfolding of leaves depending upon the moisture content of the atmosphere. Stomata occur on both the surfaces with almost equal frequency. 



 Recognition is the achievement of recognition or when the student is asked to achieve recognition when he or she makes the right choice taking into account the actual choices and consistently insists on doing so.  Very few young people achieve this level of recognition until they have completed secondary school.  Teenager himself?  What does he want to do with his life?  Its ambiguous identity is considered when it can draw definite conclusions about it.  They do not have any specific direction of their own.

 This is because they have either unsuccessfully tried to make a choice or haven't considered it seriously. (My age and help students find solutions to their personal questions. Example: to communicate with school counselors  Motivate. Discuss with competent outside services. Discuss early stage waves. Don't impose strict rules for clothing or hair. Give students realistic feedback on their behavior.

 Example: When teens misbehave, or get bad results, they try to understand what the likely consequences will be.  For oneself and for others.  Give DJ students sample answers or projects completed by other students so they can compare their work with good examples.

 Students are trying their role.  So keep the roles separate from the person, that is, criticize.  Student's behavior without criticizing him.  Creativity during adolescence and adolescence is different for both the student and the teacher.  Apart from having no purpose and duty, one of the common and important responsibilities is teaching-learning activity.

 The effect of creative thinking in adolescence and adolescence is reflected in the behavior change of the student, his skills, even at the end of a long study.  He uses this achievement in his daily work or in various problematic situations.  Education is said to be purposeful, meaningful, when the student or eek thinks new, adopts a new approach or takes a new departure in life and contributes to the development of family, society or nation.

 Not every student has the ability or achievement to think creatively in adolescence or adolescence.  Because it requires physical, intellectual, menial, emotional and spiritual maturity, training and perseverance.  Encourage study, self-study, research, independent thinking etc. with the aim of developing a somewhat creative mindset along with regular teaching by the teacher.

 Sporangial development is seen in Salvinia

Actinopteris radiata. Presence of sieve tubes have also been reported in the phloem of Equisetum anense and E. giganteum.or forms the stalk of the sporangium; this type of sporangial development is seen in Salvinia, whereas the inner cell either remains inactive Marsilea sporangia are present within specialized Lycopodium, Pteris) or heterosporous.

 In aquatic forms like Azolla, Isoetes, Salvinia. Plants are either homosporous (e.g., Equisetum, Pteridophyte structures, called sporocarps, Selaginella, Marsilea, Salvinia). initials and an inner layer of primary sporogenous cells; the jacket initials eventually form the multi-layered wall of the sporangium.

Whereas the primary sporogenous cells, by repeated divisions, give rise to spores: this type of sporangial development is found in Psilotum, Lycopodium, Selaginella and Equisetum or Leptosporangiate from a single initial cell which divides transversely into an outer and an inner cell.

The entire sporangium develops from the outer cetr the sporangium develops Marsilea, Pteris, etc. (i) Simple sorus : In this type of sorus all sporangia appear, grow and mature at the same time (e.g., Botrychium, Ophioglossum.)

  The spore wall is differentiated into an outer exine and an inner intine. The exine consists of an outer layer or ectin, composed of radially placed columnar rods, called columellae and inner relatively thin and uniform endine. The free and fused ends of columellae form various patterns on the spore wall which may be of taxonomic utility. 

The spore, germination, gives rise on to gametophytic generation. The germination of spore may be bipolar (e.g., Lycopodium, Equisetum), tripolar (e.g., Hymenophyllum) or amorphous or irregular (e.g., Angiopteris).

 The tertiary period started 63 million years ago 

 Gymnosperms predominant during : Coenozoic Era and Quarternary period.(1) Tertiary Period : This is the first period of coenozoic era. The tertiary period started 63 million years ago and ended just one million years back. The climate was warm earlier and later it was cooler. The tertiary period is divided into five epochs : 

(i) Palaeocene: It lasted for 17 million years. Angiosperms were modernised during this time. (ii) Eocene : It lasted for 22 million years. Woody ángiosperms developed during this epoch. (iii) Oligocene : It started 36 million years ago and ended 11 million years back. The woody angiosperms dispersed in broad areas.

 (iv) Miocene : It started 25 million years ago and. ended 13 million years back. The fossils of monocot plants were discovered from deposits of this age. Pliocene : This epoch started 13 million years (v) ago and ended one million years back. The monocots and herbaceous plants spreaded to large areas. 

(2) Quarternary Period: This is the latest period of coenozoic era. The quarternary period started just one million years ago and lasted till today. The climate has been varying so much. The quarternary period has an epoch, Pleistocene.

 The species development of herbaceous plants have been taking place during this period. On the basis of comparative morphology of living and fossil forms, two different views have been put forward regarding the origin of pteridophytes. Scott (1900), Bohin (1901), Church (1919), Fritsch (1916, 1945), Eames (1936), and Arnold (1947) believe 'in algal origin df pteridophytes.

Tuesday, 27 July 2021

Work directed all center decision planning and ongoing operation

  Work directed all center decision planning and ongoing operation 

 Management is a multi-purpose system that manages a business or organization.  He manages the human workers, material resources and human resources, the employees and the work I do.  Management is the main multipurpose organ that manages a business and manages managers and manages workers and works.  Its focus is on planning decisions and directing the implementation of ongoing work in the organization.

 “Management is concerned with seeing that work is done, and done efficiently. Its functions all center decision planning and guiding ongoing operations in one go. Taking, decision making and providing work to others  The art of the process of. Leadership. Organization, setting the rhythm in the organization, planning for achievement, guiding, coordinating performances and controlling the management means forecasting, planning, guiding and controlling.

 Determining and implementing strategies.  Ability to work competently with managers, workers or colleagues involved in the task.  Effective use of human and material resources to achieve the goals of the organization.  Features of Management: Management is a continuous process.  It is a social process.  It is connected.  with the humanities.  It is an art and science.  It is associated with purposeful special achievements.  has stopped.  Management is related to group efforts. Man is born and survives in the society.  Man is a social animal.

 Society is not static, it is ever changing.  Society is not like closed puddles, but like flowing springs.  There are many physical and unavoidable challenges facing the society.  Change is born out of challenge, change is the life-flow of progress, speed and progress, which is a real phenomenon of human life.  The human cultural journey that started from the cave is due to the variability of society.

 Thus variability is a major and unique feature of society.  What is social change?  Social change means change or refinement in any part of social process, social pattern, social interaction or social system.  Social change is a term used to refer to a change or modification in any aspect of a social process, social pattern, social interaction, or social organization.

 Jones Man-made living habits, attitudes and physical changes are social changes.  Social change is a process responsible for a variety of changes in man - changes in man's attitudes and living conditions to changes that go beyond human control to be biological and physical nature.

 Understanding the essence of different religions social

 Social Routines, Traditions and Beliefs: Contemporary society is becoming free from religious superstitions and beliefs.  Nevertheless, people who experience stress often seek peace of mind by resorting to superstition.  Marriage and its practices have changed, but evils like dowry are still found in the society.  Fetal killing still happens.  The status of women is still low in some societies.  Values ​​and Norms: There is a clash of values ​​and ideals in the society. The present society should be encouraged to adopt religious tolerance. 

 Ancient and traditional values ​​- destiny, people are losing faith in karma.  Indian society is witnessing a decline in spiritual and moral values.  Changes are also seen in some norms of the society.  Yet the norms like a wife, a pious and moral life, respect for elders, respect for guests.

 Caste marriages still take place, yet the incidence of divorce is increasing.  'The present society is currently passing through a phase of transition.  The imitation of western culture led to the erosion of ancient Indian values ​​and norms due to the influence of western culture, free association of c-men, culture of disco clubs, proliferation of distorted and pornographic images, media propaganda and dissemination.  Religious sphere: Indian society is a multi-religious society.  Our constitution recognizes India as a secular, secular nation.

 Hence the recognition of inter-harmony, religious tolerance, freedom of religion and worship in the nation.  People of all religions lived peacefully in the country, but religious fanaticism has increased due to some religious fanatics.  Terrorism is born out of this, religious intolerance prevails among different communities.  Sects and cults are expanding into different religions.

 So called clerics and saints are encouraging such sword fighting.  Nevertheless, the people of India remain religiously tolerant.  Religion is the worship of humanity, religion is conscientiousness, religion is the worship of spirituality and self-discovery.  Understanding the essence of such different religions, the present society has to follow religious tolerance and secularism, this is the need of the hour.  Economic life span of the society: The rural economy has almost become extinct due to the rapid growth of industrialization in India.

 Industries and businesses have changed.  Production has increased in various sectors.  The nation has become self-sufficient in food and milk.  Despite the rise in per capita income, the middle class and the poor are being crushed by inflation.  The questions of unemployment and educated unemployment have arisen.  The rich class has become richer.  Economic corruption is seen.  Unbearable floods have led people to economic criminalisation.

 Society A complex and changing system of interpersonal

 The word 'society' is used interchangeably.  People of all classes use the word society everywhere.  Various sociologists have given the following definition of 'society'.  According to Wright, “Society is not a group of human beings, but a system of social relations prevailing among the members of a group.” According to Machiavelli, “Society is the entanglement of a complex system of constantly changing social relations.  "Society is the association itself, organization is the sum of formal relations in which the individuals concerned are bound together.

 “Giddings” Society itself is a co, an organization, the sum of formal relationships in which the individuals involved are bound to possess. “Society is an artificial instrument of mutual economy. Thus, the above definition is an attempt to explain society.  According to which, society is a system of tensions in the social relations of human groups. Humans have interconnected social relationships, which change and survive. Such relationships have complexities. Society is the epitome of such complex relationships.

 Thus society is a complex and changing system of interpersonal relations between individuals, Contemporary Indian Society: The term 'contemporary' predates Indian society as we talk about it.  Time is an integral unit, but parts of it are made to be understood.  Like, primitive, medieval and modern times.  Here contemporary refers to modern times.  part of the modern era.

 It includes sections such as modern, postmodern, modern and contemporary.  The nineteenth century saw the beginning of a renaissance in Indian society.  Dayanand Saraswati and Raja Rammohan Roy played the trumpet of renaissance in Indian society.  He was agitating to stop the practice of Sati which had been going on for years.  Since then, new consciousness started to flow in the traditional Indian society.

 Then Balgangadhar Til or Swaraj is my birthright declared political awakening, English education instilled a sense of freedom among Indians and a flow of free and original ideas flourished.  A new idea is the dawn of a new era.

 The Renaissance began with new ideas about a society engulfed in conservatism, superstition and poverty.  And finally Gandhism of 'Leave India' opened the door to the modern era.  After independence, Indian society rejected the shackles of traditionalism and accepted the uniformity of modernity.  Education increased.  These aspirations have increased, goals have changed, lifestyles have changed. This is social change.

Monday, 26 July 2021

Abundant and cooperative for the environment nutrients

  Abundant and cooperative for the environment nutrients


 Water and minerals are given to the lilac, in return the lilac digests the food made by photosynthesis.  In its decade, how did her soils get the nutrients back?  (! Soil, so their amount in the soil is decreasing. Elements such as nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus in your compost ask your parents about the risk of fungus in the house. When we meet the nutrient requirements of the plant,  So these germs grow further.

 Now we can grow them and maintain their health.  You could say that we make things worse.  How can I stop it?  Crops usually live in abundance of nitrogen with few organisms and require habitat.  After harvesting, the soil becomes deficient in nitrogen.

 You have learned that the atmosphere becomes abundant and cooperative for nutrients, despite such amounts of nitrogen as plants, from carbon.  The relationship is called symbiosis (nitrogen bonding, because symbiotic drugs can utilize symbiotic dioxide).

 As such, fungi cannot use plants.  They are found on the roots in nitrogen soluble form.  The tree needs to provide nutrients to the fungus.  There are bacteria such as Rhizobium, which in turn can take up water from soil and atmospheric nitrogen from the fungus and help it obtain soluble nutrients.  This type of attachment can turn into a form.

 But Rhizobium itself.  Can't cook.  Therefore, it inhabits the roots of chlorophyll and other legumes in organisms such as chickpeas, peas, mugwort, valley lichen and is found with lilies and fungi.  The fungus inhabits, providing them with a supply of nitrogen.  The nutrition in most of the plants is very essential for the tree.

 Animals and many other organisms such as proteins, fats, vitamins

 In nutrition in plants you have studied that all organisms (auto=self, troph=nutrition) therefore require food for plants.  You have also learned that carbohydrates are called autotrophs.  Animals and many other organisms like proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals etc. have their own edible components from plants.  The components of these foods are absorbed by our body.

 They are called parasitic (heterotrophs) nutrients.  All living things need food.  Plants can make their own food, but animals and humans need to know that humans cannot.

 Why do they use plants or animals as food for our bodies?  Thus, like humans and animals, carbon dioxide, water is directly or indirectly dependent on plants.  And can't make food out of minerals?  Bhuvi wants to know that vegetable.

 Now, the question before us is where is the factory in the plant to make our food?  What makes food?  Does it occur in all parts of the plant or only in some parts?  Types of nutrition in plants Where do the raw materials come from?

 How these substances (types of nutrition in plants) are transported in plants to the food processing plant.  Plants are the only organisms that transport water, carbon dioxide.

 And makes its own food using minerals. Photosynthesis - Plants have food.  They are surrounded by the raw materials needed to make these foods.  ((PHOTOSYNTHESIS - FOOD MAKING) These nutrients are essential for the process in plants of organisms. The process of making food in plants found in the leaf is called nutrition. Hence, transporting all the raw materials there  falls and is absorbed.

 Gujarat State Secondary and Higher Secondary School Recruitment Selection


 It was published in the Gazette of the Government of Gujarat on 28 September 1973 and came into force on 13 December 1973.  The Gujarat Secondary Education Tribunal was then constituted in 1974.  In 1974 the same rules were put in place and education came into force as an exchange of education.  Let's discuss the songs.  Rules for the appointment of school principals and teachers: The rules for the appointment of school principals and teachers change from time to time.

 The following rules have been made by the Government of Gujarat for the selection of teachers and principals (registered private secondary and higher secondary schools) in accordance with the powers vested in section 35 of the Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Act, 1972 (Gujarat 18).  After placing in primary, the state government gave importance to TET/TAT exam in the appointment of teachers.  Accordingly, the state government notification issued on 13-2-2011 has changed the rules for the selection of teachers and principals.

 The information about the recruitment rules as announced by the government is presented here.  Title: These rules shall be stated as follows.  Registered Private Secondary, Higher Secondary School Teachers and Headmasters (Selection Process) Rules-2015 Definition;  Definition of words in these rules - 'Sir Kar' means the Government of Gujarat.  ‘Registered Private Schools’ means non-government secondary and higher secondary schools which receive grants from the Government.

 'Selection Committee' means a committee constituted in accordance with Rule-3, 'Old Teacher' means a teacher who is employed in a registered private school, has five years' experience as a permanent teacher and is enrolled in another  .  Have applied for a new appointment in a private school.

 'Teacher Aptitude Test (TAT)' means Teacher Aptitude Test conducted by Gujarat Madhyamik and Board of Higher Secondary Education, Gandhinagar.  'Supplemental' means a supplement attached to these rules at the end.  Constitution of Selection Committee: A Selection Committee will be constituted which will be known as 'Gujarat State Secondary and Higher Secondary School Recruitment Selection Committee'.

Wednesday, 21 July 2021

Produce chlorophyll or food by photosynthesis moisture

  Produce chlorophyll or food by photosynthesis moisture

 You may also see an umbel or moisture-filled drupe when the wood decomposes during the rainy season. Let's find out what kind of nutrients they get and where they get it.  The fungus picture on the bed receives nutrition in the packet and rotten form of the mushroom.  They secrete digestive juices on mushrooms dropped on dead and decomposing matter and turn into a solution.

 Then they absorb nutrients from it.  What kind of nutrition Boojho wants to know from the solution of dead and decomposing matter, how do these organisms get nutrition?  Receiving nutrition is called saprotrophic.

 They do not have mouths like animals.  They are called nutrition.  Plants that do not have parasitic nutrition such as green plants because they have a system called saprotrophs.

 Do not make chlorophyll or food by photosynthesis.  It grows on pickles, leather, clothing or many other things that are left in warm or comfortable places for a long time.  Activity Take a piece of bread.  Wet it with water.  Keep it in a warm and moist place for 2-3 days until it looks like a fluffy spot.

 The spot is white, first eager for a harvest, or in the rainy season its beautiful shoes which can be green, brown or any other color.  Oh! That is the matter.

 Wearing it only on special occasions caused fungal stains to be overgrown by microscopic or even crystal glass.  See what he wants to know.  Pay attention to the comments in your notebook.  Most likely, suddenly in the rainy season you will see a fungus resembling a piece of bread.  can be seen?  These organisms are called fungi.  they are different sciences. 

 Plant photosynthesis with soluble form nitroge and water

 Test both plants with iodine.  is done for your synthesis.  But note that the protein is a nitrogenous puccinum.  Now, if the plant was kept in the dark, that substance is, where does the plant get nitrogen from?  Remember, put plenty of nitrogen gas in the air, keep it near me for 14 days and test again with iodine.  The form is in your notebook, but pay attention to the overview of its vegetable nitrogen.  cannot be absorbed. 

 The part of the soil that is not green in some leaves also contains chlorophyll bacteria, which use gaseous nitrogen.  Red, brown and other pigments turn the green into a removable form and obscure the free color in the soil.  It is also in the leaves.  This soluble form of nitrogen is found in plant photosynthesis with water.  You must have also observed that farmers add nitrogen rich fertilizers to the soil.  Thus the plant contains nitrogen and other components.  meets the requirement.

 Thus, plants can synthesize components other than carbohydrates, such as proteins and fats.  Other types of poira (other forms of nutrition in plants) secretory are different colored plants. There are some plants that are chlorophyll-free, but not viscous in pools or stagnant water.  They cannot cook their own food.  I see green palms.  How can they live and develop normally?  And from where do they get their nutrition?  This organism is called algae.  Can you guess lilac green is found on food produced by plants?

 They have chlorophyll which gives them their green colour.  Parasitic nutrition, it gets nourishment.  The tree it climbs is called a 'host' rather than a carbohydrate.  The host parasite synthesizes carbohydrates as it learns that it takes its nutrients from the plant through the action of photosynthesis.

 Say carbohydrates.  Are we and other animals also made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen on plants.  Are you a parasite?  Think about it and discuss with the teacher what other ingredients, such as proteins and fats, are used.

 More about life on Earth without photosynthesis

 Kopo Cell Center Kosaras 'You have seen that the tall building is made of bricks.  Similarly, the body is made up of very small units, which are destroyed by the cell.  Kopo can only be seen under a microscope.  Some microbes are composed of only one species.  Cells are wrapped in a thin layer called a cell membrane.  Each cell has a nucleus called the nucleus.  Surrounding the cell nucleus is a jelly-like substance called the cytoplasm.

 Cellular level figure The green pigment is found in leaves through tiny pores in the cell plant that take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.  These pores are called chlorophyll and the leaf is covered by solar energy shielding cells.  Which helps in the absorption of foliage.  This energy is called carbon.  It is used to make food from dioxide and water.

 Hence we can say that chlorophyll, sunlight, carbon dioxide and water are important for the process of photosynthesis.  Solar energy travels through the leaf and into the leaf through which water is absorbed and absorbed, and minerals stored as food are transported to the plant.  They take a continuous path.  Thus, the sun creates the energy or path for all living things.  Nutrients are a unique source of leaf access.

 Yes, you can more imagine life on Earth without photosynthesis.  Can you imagine any food without photosynthesis?  Want to know first of all, no.  The survival of almost all organisms depends, directly or indirectly, on the food produced by plants.  On the other hand all that oxygen?  It is produced by photosynthesis, which is essential for the existence of living things.

 In the absence of photosynthesis, what is so special about the leaves of the earth that it can synthesize food and not other parts of plants!  But life is impossible.

Tuesday, 13 July 2021

Pericycle parenchymus cells are usually single layered

  Pericycle parenchymus cells are usually single layered

 Lie at different radii and alternate for each plant anatomy.  Phloem is in the form of bundles small protophloem is not differentiated.  The xylem protoxylem is well marked.  It is in contact with the pericycle.  The oval patches in contact are large and wedge-shaped.  Therefore, the xylem is exhausted per bundle.  Xylem bundles appear as rays.

 Depending on the number of xylem strands, the root is called dicer (2 xylem bundles, e.g., tomatoes), triarch (3 xylem bundles, e.g., peas), tetraarch (4 xylem bundles, e.g., sunflowers), a hexahark proxylum.  .  Small and narrow elements, while metaxylem consists of large and broad elements.  The contact of individual xylem bundles may form a centrally located metaclimate plate, for example, sunflower.  In some, the metaxylem portions of individual xylem bundles remain separate, so that a small pit is present.  In the center, for example, Village.

 Between the adjacent xylem and phloem bundles lies a layer or two of thin-walled cells called conjugated parenchyma or tissue.  Conjunctival parenchyma separating sap and food channels.  In addition, it produces the major part.

 Means the vascular cambium of dicot roots, the phloem is composed of sieve tubes, companion cells, and the phloem parenchyma.  Fibers are scarce, as are grams.  The xylem consists of vessels and some tubules.  Xylem parenchyma and.  Xylem fibers are somewhat shortened.

 The pericycle is made up of parenchymus cells.  It is usually single layered, e.g., sunflower, pea, gram.  This is more than one layer in some cases, for example, mulching.  At the root, the pericycle is very important.  This root is the seat of branching formation.  It gives rise to the cork cambium (phylogene) and a smaller part of the vascular cambium.  Vascular strand It consists of 2-6 radial bundles each of phloem and xylem.

 Internal structure of Dictyloidonus and Monothelonus 

 Anatomy of Dictyloidonous and Monothylonous Plants: Internal structure of the primary dicot root: It is studied in the transverse section of the young root of sunflower, pea or gram.  The primary root is the one that contains only the primary permanent tissue that is formed from the vegetative shoot apex.  Secondary tissues are absent.  The primary dicot is cylindrical in root outline.

 It appears circular in transverse section (TS).  The various tissues present in the dicot root from outside to inside are epiblema, cortex, endodermis, pericycle and vascular strands.  Pericycle and pith, if present, are thought to be part of the stele with vascular bundles.  Endodermis is considered to be the inner layer of the cortex.  Epibilema: This is the outermost layer of the young root.

 Epiblema is equivalent to the epidermis of the stem.  However, it is devoid of stomata and cuticle.  Cells are thin- wall and tubule.  They appear rectangular—the barrel that T.S.  is in size.  Some of the epilema cells form thin-walled tubular structures called long roots.  The cells that produce root hairs are called trichoblasts.  The cells are smaller than other epiblast cells.

 Because of the presence of root hairs, the epiblema is also called the sessile layer (L. pilus - hair, carrying the furrow).  Another name for epiblema is rhizodermis (root, derma skin).

 Cortex: It consists of several layers of thin-walled parenchyma cells.  Intercellular spaces are small but abundant, cortical cells may be round, oval or angular.  He stored the food.  However, the main function of the cortex in the root hair zone is the flow of water and minerals from the epilemma to the interior of the root.  Endodermis: This is the specialized inner layer of the cortex.  Endodermis is unilateral.  The cells appear barrel-shaped.

 As a result, scientific discoveries and new inventions change

 Factors bringing about social change: Some factors are the driving force behind social change.  It is as follows: Human intelligence and its inventions: Since humans are intelligent animals, curiosity and curiosity are intensified in humans.  As a result he makes scientific discoveries and new inventions.  This includes changes in their accommodation facilities, changes in their eating habits, food as well as their dress.

 Amusement equipment is going through many changes.  Changes are taking place due to scientific inventions, commercial, industrial as well as agricultural.  Social and cultural exchange has become possible due to the means of transport and communication.

 Changes in Social Values: Scientific discoveries are accompanied by technological developments which result in changes in the values ​​of the society.  Social values ​​have changed rapidly as a result of the changing political, social, economic trends of the world.  Such changes are as follows.

 Changes in the personal life of the people, changes in food habits and living habits, changes in living and dress, changes in social customs, traditions in traditional families. Such changes are sometimes caused by sudden calamities like drought, earthquake,  are caused by torrential rains and drought.  It has far-reaching impact on the human life of the society.

 Cultural factors: Cultural factors also play an important role in the direction of social change.  Culture is the product of social change.  The people living in a society have their own distinct cultures and subcultures.  The interaction between these cultures continues unabated.  Thus, due to such cultural exchange of different people, social changes take place, which cultural patterns change from generation to generation and bring about changes in the society.

Thursday, 8 July 2021

Mature segment contains well developed hermaphrodite

  Mature segment contains well developed hermaphrodite 

Taenia solium is found in the intestine of man. The scolex lies buried in the intestinal mucosa. Commonly called as Pork tapeworm. Scolex serves as hold-fast organ. It contains 4 suckers and a rounded rostellum. Suckers contain Rostellum at its base contains double row of 28 to 32 books. Neck region is area of proliferation. Mature segment contains well developed hermaphrodite genital organs.

Gravid segments contain Branched uterus filled with onchospheres Life-cycle includes two hosts (i) man as definitive host and (ii) pig as intermediate host. Logitudinal and transverse excretory canals are seen in all segments. In villages, man deficates in the open field. Pig eats contaminated human faeces containing onchospheres and becomes infected. 

Onchospheres or hexacanth larvae develop into Cysticerous larvae or bladder worm called as Cysticercus cellulose, which encyst in thigh, chest, shoulder muscles of the pig. Such muscle is called as meašly pork.

 When man eats inadequately cooked hot dog or measly pork, it becomes infected and Taenia solium develops into adult in the intestine. It causes various diseases in man like anaemia, secondary nausea and insomnia, etc. Upto 13% eosinophilia is caused by it. It also causes metabolic disturbances in the host. anaemia, eosinophilia, diarrhoea, haemrrhage, abdominal pain. 

 Annular in narrow and small protoxylem vessels

 Number of xylem bundles.  Xylem vessels are called oval or ts.  is rounded in.  Metaxylem vessels have thickened.  Narrow and small protoxylem vessels have annular, spiral, reticulate or scalariform thickenings.  Between the phloem and xylem bundles are one or more layers of conjugate tissue.  The conjunctival tissue in young roots is composed of parenchyma cells.

 In older roots the cells become so numerous that the vascular strands become embedded in sclerenchymatous cylinders.  Parenchymatous conjunctive tissue stores food and helps in its lateral conduction.  It provides mechanical strength to the old roots.

 This does not form a vascular cambium.  Pith: This occurs in the center of the root.  Pith is parenchymatous: cells are usually round or oval.  Small intercellular spaces are present.  Cells store food.  In monocot roots of drier regions, pith cells are thick-walled or flattened.

 Reasons for identification: (i) Presence of original hair.  (ii) Endodermis with passage cells.  (iii) Presence of pith.  (iv) Radial bundle more than eight.  (v) Excel xylem.  (vi) The occurrence of exodermis.

 The cambium is not formed in the pericycles of the roots of monocots as secondary growth is absent in monocots.  Vascular Strand: It is polygonal and consists of eight or more alternate and radial bundles of xylem and phloem.  The number of xylem and phloem bundles is equal.

 They are in contact with the pericycle in turn.  Phloem bundles are small oval patches.  Phloem is composed of sieve tubes and companion cells.  Phloem fibers are rare.  Phloem parenchyma is absent.

Saturday, 3 July 2021

Intestine is peculiar having three branches one extending

  Intestine is peculiar having three branches one extending

EMATICS Dugesia is fresh water, triclad found in streams, springs, pona lakes and caves, gliding over stones and debris by the side the pond or on the bottom. Commonly known as Planaria. Dark brown, elongated cylindrical animal measuri approximately 15 mm in length. Body differentiated into dorsal and ventral surfaces. Ventr surfaces contain adhesive and ciliated zones. Anterior region is called as head. 

Head is triangular containing 2 ears like auricles on side ani 2 semicircular ocelli. Body tapers posterior as a pointed end. Digestive system consists of mouth, proboscis, oesophagus ani intestine. Intestine is peculiar having three branches one extending upwards and two backwards and hence the name tricladida. Mouth encircled by proboscis pore.

 Proboscis is highly muscular and lies in a proboscis sheath and is everted through the proboscis the proboscis pore. Gonopore lies behind proboscis pore. It reproduces sexually and asexually. Il: Trematoda (Gr., tremta = hole + eidos = form) Ecto or Endo parasitic. Commonly called as Flukes.

 Body dorsoventrally flattened and covered with cutiele. Endoparasite or Ectoparasite. No free living forms. Life cycle monogenic or digenic without intermediate hosts Suckers for adhesion. E.g. Liver fluke. 

 Buccal capsule contains a pair of chitinous plates and a median

 Commonly called as hook worm. Males smaller than females. Anterior end in both sexes is bent dorsally and is provided with large and cup-shaped buccal capsule for attachment with mucous membrane of the intestine. Buccal capsule contains a pair of chitinous plates and a median dental process or teeth. Tail end of female is pointed, while that of male contains copulatory bursa. Males can be easily recognized by the bursa and its muscular rays. The single dorsal ray and equal spread of 3 lateral rays causing good mark to identification.

 Nerve ring and excretory pores anteriorly situated. Sexes are separate. Mode of infection is skin penetration. The infection causes various diseases. Migratory larvae in skin cause creeping eruption dermatitis and allergic reactions. In lungs larval cause pneuomonia and hemorrhage.

Parasites implant their buccal capsule in the mucosa of the intestine, suck blood and destroy haemoglobin causing anaemia.Phylum: Annelida Phylum Annelida included higher segmented worms (L. annelus = little ring + Gr., edios = form).

 Appearance of metamerism represents their greatest advancement. So, that they are called segmented worms. They are the first coelomatic animais having closed type of circulatory system.