Friday, 25 June 2021

Characteristic feature is the presence of chromodium inverted

   Characteristic feature is the presence of chromodium inverted



Comments Arcella is commonly found in stagnant fresh water containing much vegetation it is also found in moist forest soils moist sands and moss. It contains characteristic light yellow to dark brown shell or test which is made up of intricately arranged silicious, prisms set in a tectin base of reticular appearance. 

Ventral surface has an inverted, funnel like depression, leading to central mouth or cytostome. 1 to 6 small, hyaline, finger like, simple or branched lobopodia are extended through the pylome, which function as Locomotory and feeding organelles. Cytoplasm is differentiated into non vacuolated ectoplasm and endoplasm.

 Body is attached to the inner test wall by ectoplasmic stands or epipodia. Characteristic feature is the presence of chromodium or a peripheral layer of reticular cytoplasm. Endop
ontains various reserved food particles food vacuoles and contractile vacuole to prominent nuclei. Nutrition is holozoic. takes place by binary fission and partial extrusion of the body through pylome.

 Super Class II : Mastigophora (Flagellata) Simple, primitive animals Class Phytomastigoforea / Phytoflagellata Presence of chlorophyll (in chromatophore) Mainly autotrophic Locomotion by flagella. E.g. Ceratium. 

Called as disc which is slightly convex having vestibular opening ures 150 microns in length, excluding stalk, which 241 Zng nd of the body is typically tlattened bell or vase shaped on the side.Cytoplasm is differentiated in ecto and endoplasm. Periatome contains 2 rows of spirally coiled cilia, called as outer adoral cilia and inner adoral cilia forming ciliated dise.

Prepared-by squeez and bleaching or dyeing in sponge Euspongia



 Peristome leads into oral groove which is contained into vestibule. Vestibule has undulatory membrane. Ciliated dise rest on collar. Ectoplasm is devoid of trichocysts and contain pellicle and cotractile myonemes. Endoplasm is exclusively in body proper, and possesses food particles long and curved macronucleus and small micronucleus and cytopyge. Locomotion is rapid and by stalk and cilia. Nutrition is holozoic.

 Vorticella responds to external stimuli.  Phylum: Porifera The name Porifera (L. porus = pores, ferre Besring animals. Sponges belong to phylum Porifera. = to bear) means pore General characters Auticellular organisms with cellular grade of organization. uy marine, only one family Spongillidae is distributed in fresh water. All aquatic. Commonly called as sponges. Solitary or colonial, all sessile.

Rocky substratum Fig. Euspongia Euspongia is found in shallow water on rocky bottom. It sedentary form attached to the rocks by horny spone secretion. Commonly called as bath sponge attached to rocky substrate It attains a large and massive size with globular or cup-shaped body with dark black color. The slender spongin fibres fm småll network. Complex type of sponge, in which there is a further incres in the folding of the body wall.  

Bath sponge is of household use. It is prepared-by squeez and bleaching or dyeing in sponge. The common bath spe mainly consists of spongin fibres having the capacity of holdis water. 1.4 Phylum : Coelenterata Coelenterata are the first animals who have tissue gra of organization and division of labour. A central cavity or coelenter (Gr., koilos = hollow + enteron = gastro-vascular cavity. gut) functionally referred. 

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