Wednesday, 28 July 2021



 Recognition is the achievement of recognition or when the student is asked to achieve recognition when he or she makes the right choice taking into account the actual choices and consistently insists on doing so.  Very few young people achieve this level of recognition until they have completed secondary school.  Teenager himself?  What does he want to do with his life?  Its ambiguous identity is considered when it can draw definite conclusions about it.  They do not have any specific direction of their own.

 This is because they have either unsuccessfully tried to make a choice or haven't considered it seriously. (My age and help students find solutions to their personal questions. Example: to communicate with school counselors  Motivate. Discuss with competent outside services. Discuss early stage waves. Don't impose strict rules for clothing or hair. Give students realistic feedback on their behavior.

 Example: When teens misbehave, or get bad results, they try to understand what the likely consequences will be.  For oneself and for others.  Give DJ students sample answers or projects completed by other students so they can compare their work with good examples.

 Students are trying their role.  So keep the roles separate from the person, that is, criticize.  Student's behavior without criticizing him.  Creativity during adolescence and adolescence is different for both the student and the teacher.  Apart from having no purpose and duty, one of the common and important responsibilities is teaching-learning activity.

 The effect of creative thinking in adolescence and adolescence is reflected in the behavior change of the student, his skills, even at the end of a long study.  He uses this achievement in his daily work or in various problematic situations.  Education is said to be purposeful, meaningful, when the student or eek thinks new, adopts a new approach or takes a new departure in life and contributes to the development of family, society or nation.

 Not every student has the ability or achievement to think creatively in adolescence or adolescence.  Because it requires physical, intellectual, menial, emotional and spiritual maturity, training and perseverance.  Encourage study, self-study, research, independent thinking etc. with the aim of developing a somewhat creative mindset along with regular teaching by the teacher.

 Sporangial development is seen in Salvinia

Actinopteris radiata. Presence of sieve tubes have also been reported in the phloem of Equisetum anense and E. giganteum.or forms the stalk of the sporangium; this type of sporangial development is seen in Salvinia, whereas the inner cell either remains inactive Marsilea sporangia are present within specialized Lycopodium, Pteris) or heterosporous.

 In aquatic forms like Azolla, Isoetes, Salvinia. Plants are either homosporous (e.g., Equisetum, Pteridophyte structures, called sporocarps, Selaginella, Marsilea, Salvinia). initials and an inner layer of primary sporogenous cells; the jacket initials eventually form the multi-layered wall of the sporangium.

Whereas the primary sporogenous cells, by repeated divisions, give rise to spores: this type of sporangial development is found in Psilotum, Lycopodium, Selaginella and Equisetum or Leptosporangiate from a single initial cell which divides transversely into an outer and an inner cell.

The entire sporangium develops from the outer cetr the sporangium develops Marsilea, Pteris, etc. (i) Simple sorus : In this type of sorus all sporangia appear, grow and mature at the same time (e.g., Botrychium, Ophioglossum.)

  The spore wall is differentiated into an outer exine and an inner intine. The exine consists of an outer layer or ectin, composed of radially placed columnar rods, called columellae and inner relatively thin and uniform endine. The free and fused ends of columellae form various patterns on the spore wall which may be of taxonomic utility. 

The spore, germination, gives rise on to gametophytic generation. The germination of spore may be bipolar (e.g., Lycopodium, Equisetum), tripolar (e.g., Hymenophyllum) or amorphous or irregular (e.g., Angiopteris).

 The tertiary period started 63 million years ago 

 Gymnosperms predominant during : Coenozoic Era and Quarternary period.(1) Tertiary Period : This is the first period of coenozoic era. The tertiary period started 63 million years ago and ended just one million years back. The climate was warm earlier and later it was cooler. The tertiary period is divided into five epochs : 

(i) Palaeocene: It lasted for 17 million years. Angiosperms were modernised during this time. (ii) Eocene : It lasted for 22 million years. Woody √°ngiosperms developed during this epoch. (iii) Oligocene : It started 36 million years ago and ended 11 million years back. The woody angiosperms dispersed in broad areas.

 (iv) Miocene : It started 25 million years ago and. ended 13 million years back. The fossils of monocot plants were discovered from deposits of this age. Pliocene : This epoch started 13 million years (v) ago and ended one million years back. The monocots and herbaceous plants spreaded to large areas. 

(2) Quarternary Period: This is the latest period of coenozoic era. The quarternary period started just one million years ago and lasted till today. The climate has been varying so much. The quarternary period has an epoch, Pleistocene.

 The species development of herbaceous plants have been taking place during this period. On the basis of comparative morphology of living and fossil forms, two different views have been put forward regarding the origin of pteridophytes. Scott (1900), Bohin (1901), Church (1919), Fritsch (1916, 1945), Eames (1936), and Arnold (1947) believe 'in algal origin df pteridophytes.

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